Primaries, the secret ballot, and the use of referendum and recall were efforts made during the Progressive Era to (1) preserve the power of political machines (2) provide equal political rights for Native American Indians (3) protect States rights against federal power (4) increase citizen participation in government
(4) Increase citizen participation in government Primary: a way for citizens to vote for new government officials, not too influenced by party leaders Secret Ballot: keeping a voter's votes private from others Recall: a way for citizens to remove a government official from office Referendum: a way for citizens to vote for or against something proposed by the legislature During the Progressive Era, many local governments were lead by corrupt political machines. They would rig elections in their favor as well as threaten those who voted against them. Many would appoint their supporters who weren't usually qualified to government positions as incentive to vote for them (I don't know if you care but that's called the spoils system). It's not (1) because the whole point of primaries, secret ballots, recalls, and referendums was so political machines were not dominating It's not (2) because none of this has a lot to do with Native Americans It's not (3) because the political machines were a local government problem, not federal It IS (4) because by getting more people involved in the government, they can elect qualified officials, vote on laws that best benefit the people, and minimize corruption.