What happens when the kinetic energy of molecules increases so much that electrons are released by the atoms, creating a swirling gas of positive ions and negative electrons?

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The "gas" is ionized and may correctly be described as a fourth state of matter - a plasma - rather than a gas. Both a gas and a plasma would expand indefinitely if not contained somehow but the ionized particles of a plasma could be controlled electromagnetically whereas a gas could not. A typical plasma is contained in an illuminated neon sign.

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